Prevalence and determinants of perinatal depression among labour migrant and refugee women on the Thai-Myanmar border: a cohort study.
Fellmeth G., Plugge E., Fazel M., Oo MM., Pimanpanarak M., Phichitpadungtham Y., Wai K., Charunwatthana P., Simpson JA., Nosten F., Fitzpatrick R., McGready R.
BACKGROUND: Perinatal depression is a significant contributor to maternal morbidity and mortality globally. Migrant women, particularly those living in low- and middle-income settings, represent a particularly vulnerable group due to stressors experienced before, during and after migration. The vast majority of global migration flows occurring within and between low- and middle-income regions, yet existing evidence focuses predominantly on migrants in high-income destinations. This study aimed to redress this significant gap in the evidence by determining the prevalence and determinants of perinatal depression among migrant women on the Thai-Myanmar border. METHODS: A cohort of labour migrant and refugee women was followed-up from the first trimester of pregnancy to one month post-partum. Depression status was assessed in the first, second and third trimesters of pregnancy and at one month post-partum using the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnosis of DSM-IV Disorders. Women diagnosed with depression had immediate access to care. Data on potential demographic, social and clinical associated factors was collected using a questionnaire. Prevalence and incidence of any depressive disorder and moderate-severe depressive disorder was calculated. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression using complete case analysis was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) of association between exposure variables and depression status. RESULTS: Five hundred sixty-eight women participated. Period prevalence (from first trimester of pregnancy to one month post-partum) of moderate-severe perinatal depression was 18.5% (95% CI 15.4-21.9%). Overall, 15.4% (95% CI 11.8-19.6%) of women developed new-onset moderate-severe depression during the study period. Forty-two participants received treatment for depression. Risk factors were interpersonal violence (OR 4.5; 95% CI 1.9-11.1); history of trauma (OR 2.4; 95% CI 1.4-4.3); self-reported history of depression (OR 2.3; 95% CI 1.2-4.2); labour migrant status (OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.1-4.0); low social support (OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.1-3.7); and maternal age (OR 1.1 per year; 95% CI 1.0-1.1). Limitations of the study include that culturally specific manifestations of depression may have been missed. CONCLUSIONS: Perinatal depression represents a significant burden among migrant women on the Thai-Myanmar border. Programmes to address the determinants along with early case identification and effective treatment and referral systems are key to addressing perinatal depression in this low-resource setting.