Cuffless blood pressure measuring devices: review and statement by the European Society of Hypertension Working Group on Blood Pressure Monitoring and Cardiovascular Variability.
Stergiou GS., Mukkamala R., Avolio A., Kyriakoulis KG., Mieke S., Murray A., Parati G., Schutte AE., Sharman JE., Asmar R., McManus RJ., Asayama K., De La Sierra A., Head G., Kario K., Kollias A., Myers M., Niiranen T., Ohkubo T., Wang J., Wuerzner G., O'Brien E., Kreutz R., Palatini P., European Society of Hypertension Working Group on Blood Pressure Monitoring and Cardiovascular Variability None.
BACKGROUND: Many cuffless blood pressure (BP) measuring devices are currently on the market claiming that they provide accurate BP measurements. These technologies have considerable potential to improve the awareness, treatment, and management of hypertension. However, recent guidelines by the European Society of Hypertension do not recommend cuffless devices for the diagnosis and management of hypertension. OBJECTIVE: This statement by the European Society of Hypertension Working Group on BP Monitoring and Cardiovascular Variability presents the types of cuffless BP technologies, issues in their validation, and recommendations for clinical practice. STATEMENTS: Cuffless BP monitors constitute a wide and heterogeneous group of novel technologies and devices with different intended uses. Cuffless BP devices have specific accuracy issues, which render the established validation protocols for cuff BP devices inadequate for their validation. In 2014, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers published a standard for the validation of cuffless BP devices, and the International Organization for Standardization is currently developing another standard. The validation of cuffless devices should address issues related to the need of individual cuff calibration, the stability of measurements post calibration, the ability to track BP changes, and the implementation of machine learning technology. Clinical field investigations may also be considered and issues regarding the clinical implementation of cuffless BP readings should be investigated. CONCLUSION: Cuffless BP devices have considerable potential for changing the diagnosis and management of hypertension. However, fundamental questions regarding their accuracy, performance, and implementation need to be carefully addressed before they can be recommended for clinical use.