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BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular risk-based screening is proposed as a key intervention to reduce premature cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the UK and internationally. This study evaluated a targeted cardiovascular (CVD) assessment pilot in 23 community pharmacies in Birmingham, UK. METHODS: The CVD risk assessment service used near-patient testing and the Framingham risk equations administered by pharmacists to screen clients aged 40-70 without known CVD. Outcomes assessed included volume of activity, uptake by deprivation and ethnicity and onwards referral. RESULTS: Complete data were available for 1130 of 1141 clients; 679 (60%) male, 218 (19%) smokers and 124 (11%) had a family history of CVD. Overall, 792 (70%) of clients were referred to their general practice: 201 (18%) at CVD risk of 20% or more, remainder with individual risk factor(s). Greater representation from Black (7.4%) and Asian (24.8%) communities and from average and less deprived quintiles than the affluent and most deprived was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Community pharmacies can provide a CVD risk assessment service in a UK urban setting that can attract males and provide access for deprived communities and Black and Asian communities. A pharmacy service can support GP practices in identifying and managing the workload of around 30% of clients.

Original publication




Journal article


J Public Health (Oxf)

Publication Date





110 - 116


Adult, Aged, Cardiovascular Diseases, Community Pharmacy Services, Feasibility Studies, Female, Health Services Accessibility, Humans, Male, Mass Screening, Middle Aged, Outcome Assessment, Health Care, Pilot Projects, Primary Prevention, Risk Assessment, Risk Factors, Socioeconomic Factors, United Kingdom, Urban Health