The Impact of Gender and Protein Intake on the Success of Weight Maintenance and Associated Cardiovascular Risk Benefits, Independent of the Mode of Food Provision: The DiOGenes Randomized Trial.
Navas-Carretero S., Holst C., Saris WH., van Baak MA., Jebb SA., Kafatos A., Papadaki A., Pfeiffer AFH., Handjieva-Darlenska T., Hlavaty P., Stender S., Larsen TM., Astrup A., Martinez JA.
OBJECTIVE: Maintenance of weight loss and associated cardiovascular benefits after following energy-restricted diets is still a challenging field, and thorough investigation is needed. The present research aimed to determine the role of protein and gender in relation to two different intervention models related to food supply, in a weight maintenance trial. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The DiOGenes trial was a long-term, multicenter, randomized, dietary intervention study, conducted in eight European countries (Clinical Trials.gov, NCT00390637), focusing on assessing the effectiveness of weight maintenance over 6 months. This secondary analysis intended to evaluate the different benefits for weight maintenance and cardiometabolic markers of two dietary advice delivery models: "shop + instruction intervention" vs "instruction-alone intervention," which were further categorized for gender and macronutrient intake. RESULTS: The weight maintenance intervention based on different macronutrient intake showed, independently of the advice delivery model, in both sexes that higher protein consumption was more effective for weight stability, showing better results in obese women (low protein: 1.65 kg in males and 0.73 Kg in females vs high protein: 1.45 kg in males and -0.93 Kg in females) . Measurements concerning cardiovascular risk markers from subjects on both structured models produced similar trends in the subsequent follow-up period, with a lower rebound in women for most of the markers analyzed. CONCLUSION: The reported dietary benefits for weight sustainability should be ascribed to the macronutrient distribution (higher protein diets) rather than to the structured mode of delivery. Higher weight regain in males was noted, as well as a metabolic divergence attributable to the sex, with a better biochemical outcome in women.